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AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS.

Austenitic stainless steels have sufficient alloying to stabilize austenite at room temperature. These steels being austenitic are nonmagnetic. Austenitic stainless steels have excellent low-temperature toughness, weldability, and corrosion resistance.
On the other hand, they have relatively low yield strength and can only be strengthened by cold working the steel, by precipitation hardening, or by interstitial or substitutional solid solution strengthening.
The table on pp. 15.1–15.4 of the ASM Metals Handbook, Desktop Edition, 1985, lists the composition limits of the austenitic stainless steels. In general, the 3xx series are iron – chromium–nickel alloys that contain 16–26% chromium and 6–22% nickel. The popular type 304 austenitic stainless steel contains 18–20% Cr and 8–12% Ni and is often referred to as ‘‘18-8’’ stainless steel for the chromium and nickel content. There are many compositional variations of austenitic stainless steels. The following list summarizes these variations:
201 Low nickel replaced with manganese and nitrogen
202 Higher Mn than 201
205 Higher Mn and N than 202
301 Lower Ni and Cr to increase work-hardening ability
302 General-purpose 18–8 stainless steel
302B Scaling resistance improved with Si
303 Enhanced machinability with a S addition
303Se Improved machined surfaces with a selenium addition
304 Popular 18–8 stainless steel, lower C than 302
304L Low-carbon 304 for improved corrosion resistance
304LN Low-carbon 304 with nitrogen added for strength
304H Higher carbon 304
304Cu Copper added for improved cold working
304N Nitrogen added for strength
305 Higher Ni for reduced work hardening
308 Higher Cr and Ni for weldability
309 High Cr and Ni for heat resistance
309S Lower carbon 309
309Cb Niobium (columbium) added
310 Higher Cr and Ni than 309 for improved heat resistance
310S Lower carbon 310
310Cb Niobium (columbium) added
314 Higher Si for improved heat resistance
316 Mo added for improved corrosion resistance
316F Higher S and P for machinability
316L Lower C for improved corrosion resistance and weldability
316LN Lower C and higher nitrogen (for strength)
316H Higher carbon 316
316N Nitrogen added for strength
316Ti Titanium added
316Cb Niobium (columbium) added
317 Higher Cr and Mo for improved corrosion resistance
317L Low-carbon 317 for improved weldability
321 Titanium added to minimize Cr carbide precipitation
330 High Ni to minimize carburization and improve thermal shock
347 Nb and Ta added to minimize Cr carbide precipitation
347H Higher carbon 347
348 Ta and Co added for restricted nuclear applications
348H Higher carbon 348
384 Higher Ni for decreased work hardening
The limiting of carbon is important in austenitic stainless steels. When heated, carbon forms chromium carbide that precipitates on the austenite grain boundaries and produces a condition known as sensitization. Because the chromium is tied up as carbide, the chromium adjacent to the boundaries will be depleted in chromium and corrosion can take place.
Sensitization is reversible by heating the steel to temperatures between 1040 and 1150 C followed by rapid cooling to room temperature. The high temperature dissolves the carbides and the rapid cooling prevents reprecipitation of the carbides.

Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Research Laboratories
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

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