Hydrogen gas is also a residual element in steel and can be very deleterious.
Hydrogen is soluble in liquid steel and somewhat soluble in austenite. However, it is very insoluble in ferrite and is rejected as atomic hydrogen (H ). If trapped inside the steel, usually in products such as thick plate, heavy forgings, or railroad rail, hydrogen will accumulate on the surfaces of manganese sulfide inclusions. When this accumulation takes place, molecular hydrogen (H2) can form and develop sufficient pressure to create internal cracks. As the cracks grow, they form what is termed hydrogen flakes and the product must be scrapped.

However, if the product is slow cooled from the rolling temperature, the atomic hydrogen has sufficient time to diffuse from the product, thus avoiding hydrogen damage. Also, most modern steelmakers use degassing to remove hydrogen from liquid steel. 

Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Research Laboratories
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Reprinted from Handbook of Materials Selection, Wiley, New York, 2002, by permission of the publisher.
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition.
Edited by Myer Kutz
Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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