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Selenium

Selenium is added to some austenitic stainless steels (AISI type 303Se), ferritic stainless steels (AISI type 430Se), and martensitic stainless steels (AISI type 416Se) for improved machined surfaces.

Rare Earth Elements.
The rare earth elements cerium and lanthanum are added to steel for sulfide shape control, i.e., the sulfides become rounded instead of stringers. It is usually added in the form of mish metal (a metallic mixture of the rare earth elements).

Residual Elements.
Tin, antimony, arsenic, and copper are considered residual elements in steel. They are also called tramp elements. These elements are not intentionally added to steel but remain in steel because they are difficult to remove during steelmaking and refining. Steels made by electric furnace melting employing scrap as a raw material contain higher levels of residual elements than steels made in an integrated steelmaking facility (blast
furnace–BOF route). Some electric furnace melting shops use direct-reduced iron pellets to dilute the effect of these residuals.

Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Research Laboratories
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Reprinted from Handbook of Materials Selection, Wiley, New York, 2002, by permission of the publisher.
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition.
Edited by Myer Kutz
Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.





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