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Zirconium - Nitrogen - Lead

Zirconium
Although expensive and rarely added to steel, zirconium acts like titanium in forming zirconium nitride participates.

Nitrogen.
Nitrogen is added to some steels, e.g., steels containing vanadium, to provide sufficient nitrogen for nitride formation. This is important in microalloyed steels containing  vanadium. Nitrogen, being an interstitial element like carbon, strengthens ferrite. A number of austenitic  stainless steels contain nitrogen for strengthening (AISI type 201, 202, 205, 304N, 304LN, 316N, and 316LN).

Lead.
Lead is added to steel for enhanced machinability. Being insoluble in iron, lead particles are distributed through the steel and provide both lubrication and chip breaking ability during machining. However, leaded steels are being discontinued around the world because of the environmental health problems associated with lead.



Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Research Laboratories
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition.
Edited by Myer Kutz
Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.






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