Nickel - Chromium

Nickel is an important element because of its positive effect on hardenability. Many important low-alloy steels contain nickel for this reason. Nickel, being a substitutional element in the iron lattice, has a small effect on increasing yield strength. Nickel, being an austenite stabilizer, is also a vital element in austenitic stainless steels. Nickel is also important in steels for cryogenic applications and storage tanks for liquefied hydrocarbon gases.
Nickel does not form a carbide and remains in solid solution.

Like nickel, chromium has a positive effect on hardenability and is an important alloying element in many low-alloy steels. For corrosion resistance, chromium is present in all stainless steels as a solid solution element. In addition to hardenability and solid solution effects, chromium forms several important chromium carbides that are necessary for wear resistance in many tool steels and steels used for rolls in hot- and cold-rolling mills.

Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Research Laboratories
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Reprinted from Handbook of Materials Selection, Wiley, New York, 2002, by permission of the publisher.
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition.
Edited by Myer Kutz
Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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